A currency trade is the synchronized buying of one currency and selling of another one. The currency mixture used in the trade is called a cross (for example, the euro/US dollar, or the GB pound/Japanese yen.). The most commonly traded currencies are the so-called "majors" - EURUSD, USDJPY, USDCHF and GBPUSD.
The most important Forex market is the spot market as it has the largest volume. The market is called the spot market because trades are settled immediately, or "on the spot". In practice this means two banking days.